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心静如水

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工作单位:大连理工大学应用数学系(现更名为数学科学学院) 我的专业:概率论与数理统计

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【学习英语】新概念英语 1 Lesson 102(2)  

2012-02-01 23:25:39|  分类: 学习英语 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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【学习英语】新概念英语 1  Lesson 102(2) - 心静如水 - 心静如水
 

   这部分的语法—直接引语和间接引语,是我看参考书归纳总结出来的基本和重要的内容,也是我的体会。仅供参考。

新概念英语 1  Lesson 102 (2) 

Grammar and Practice

1. direct speech and indirect speech

(1)引用或转述别人说的话时,一字不改的加以引用或复述出来,称为直接引语。

直接引语:direct speech

引用或转述别人说的话时,用自己的话转述别人说的话,称为间接引语。

间接引语:indirect speech

直接引语放在引号内。间接引语用宾语从句表达,一般用连词that引导。that没有什么意思,在口语或非正式文中可以省略。

对于一般疑问句和特殊疑问句,直接引语变为间接引语,如用到

if(是否), when(什么时候),what(什么), why(为什么)等不能省略。

这里只举两个简单例子说明。

①She asked me, “Are you sleepy?” (直接引语—一般疑问句)

她问我:“你是困了吗?”

She asked me if I was sleepy. (间接引语)

她问我我是否困了。

if 表示“是否”,不能省略。主句中的谓语动词是过去时,直接引语中的谓语动词是一般现在时,则间接引语中的谓语动词用一般过去时。

②She asked me , “ Why are you sleepy?” (直接引语—特殊疑问句)

她问我:“你为什么困了?”

She asked me why I was sleepy. (间接引语)

她问我我为什么困了。

why表示“为什么”,不能省略。

直接引语是陈述句,变为间接引语要注意人称和时态的变化。

例如:She says, “ I’m a teacher.” 她说:“我是一名教师。”

变为间接引语为

She says (that) she’s a teacher. 她说她是一名教师。

(人称变化:I 变为she)

主句中的谓语动词是一般现在时或一般将来时,直接引语变为间接引语,其时态不变。如上例或下例。

She will say, “ I have watered the garden.”(直接引语)

她会说:“我已经给花园浇水了。”

She will say (that) she has watered the garden. (间接引语,时态不变。)

她会说她已经给花园浇水了。

(2)主句中的谓语动词是过去时态,直接引语变为间接引语,时态变化如下表

直接引语

间接引语

一般现在时

He said, “ I have a cold.”

一般过去时

He said that he had a cold.

一般过去时

He said, “I saw the film.”

过去完成时

He said that he had seen the film.

现在进行时

He said, “I’m reading my book.”

过去进行时

He said he was reading his book.

过去进行时

He said, “We were waiting for a

 bus.”

过去进行时

He said that they were waiting

 for a bus.

现在完成时

He said, “ I have eaten lunch.”

 

过去完成时

He said that he had eaten lunch.

 

过去完成时

He said, “I had finished my

 homework before supper.”

过去完成时

He said that he had finished his homework before supper.

一般将来时

He said, “ I will sell my house.”

过去将来时

He said that he would sell his

 house.

过去将来时

He said, “ It would rain.”

过去将来时

He said that It would rain.

 

 2. Rewrite the following sentences according to the requests

(1)改写为间接引语

例如:He is drinking his milk.

He said that he has drunk his milk.

① She is shutting the door.

She says that she has shut the door.

② He is putting on his coat.

He says that he has put on his coat.

③ He is reading this magazine.

He says that he has read this magazine.

④ They are speaking to the boss.

They say that they have spoken to the boss.

⑤ The sun is rising.

They say that the sun has risen.

 (2)改写成间接引语和直接引语

例如:He feels ill.

He says that he feels ill.

He says, “ I feel ill.”

① He feels cold.

He says he feels cold.

He says, “ I feel cold.”

② He will sell his house.

He says he will sell his house.

He says, “ I will sell my house.”

③ He needs an X-ray.

He says he needs an X-ray.

He says, “ I need an X-ray.”

④He has got a cold.

He says he has got a cold.

He says, “ I have got a cold.”

⑤He must wait for a but.

He says he must wait for a bus.

He says, “ I must wait for a but.”

⑥He needs a haircut.

He says he needs a haircut.

He says, “ I need a haircut.”

⑦He feels tired.

He says he feels tired.

He says, “ I feel tired.”

⑧He feels thirsty.

He says he feels thirsty.

He says, “ I feel thirsty.”

⑨He has got a brother.

He says he has got a brother.

He says, “ I have got a brother.”

 

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